Thyroid – Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

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Thyroid gland is a tiny organ that is found around the region of the windpipe exactly in the front of the neck (trachea). It is a butterfly-shaped gland that is found below the Adam’s apple.

Human thyroid

The thyroid gland produces and releases substances that assist your body in performing certain tasks. It has two side lobes that are joined in the centre by an isthmus (bridge).

Types of thyroid


Hypothyroidism is a condition where your body generates very low and inadequate thyroid hormone which ultimately makes your body sick in the long run.


When your thyroid isn’t functioning correctly, it can cause problems throughout your body. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid hormone production is high and uncontrolled.

Causes of thyroid

Iodine deficiency

Goitre and hypothyroidism are caused by severe iodine deficiency because of the low iodine concentrations to allow thyroid hormone production.

Sometimes, Nodules can form within a goitre. Choking symptoms as well as difficulty swallowing and breathing may occur in patients with goitre.

Autoimmune diseases

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune condition that affects the thyroid gland as well as the area around the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland produces hormones that help regulate several body functions.


The illness known as thyroiditis causes the thyroid gland to enlarge (inflammation). Either the blood levels of thyroid hormones are excessively high or abnormally low.

Thyroid nodules

Thyroid nodules are lumps or growths in the thyroid gland. They normally don’t show any indications or symptoms. They are frequently discovered during a doctor’s normal medical examination. They can become large if treatment is not given properly.

Cancerous tumours

The thyroid gland is a region where thyroid cancer first develops. The majority of thyroid cancers are treatable and do not pose a life-threatening hazard. Even after thyroid surgery or other treatments, your body still needs thyroid hormones to function. For the rest of your life, you’ll need to take thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

Impact of radiation therapy and thyroid surgery

Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) and certain kinds of thyroid cancer are treated with radioactive iodine (RAI). Although the name “radioactive” may conjure up images of danger, it is a safe, generally well-tolerated, and effective medication that targets thyroid cells with minimal exposure to other bodily cells.

A thyroidectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of your thyroid gland. It secretes hormones that regulate every element of your metabolism, from heart rate to calorie burn rate.

Some genetic disorders

Mutations in one of the several genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis that cause thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Thyroid hormone synthesis is disrupted by mutations in each of these genes, resulting in abnormally low amounts of hormones.

Symptoms of thyroid


Fatigue is always a sign of hypothyroidism. This medical ailment is caused by a decrease in thyroid hormone production. Bone-numbing fatigue is one visible sign that your thyroid levels are not properly balanced.

Increased sensitivity to cold

Cold sensitivity is a well-known symptom of hypothyroidism. These hormones aid in controlling body temperature and metabolism. When the thyroid does not create enough thyroid hormones, the body’s functions become slower and hypothyroidism develops.


The body’s functions can be slowed down by hypothyroidism due to a lack of thyroid hormone. Fatigue, dry skin, depression, constipation, forgetfulness and weight gain are all possible side effects of hypothyroidism.

Dry skin

Dry skin is a frequent symptom of hypothyroidism. However, most persons with dry skin do not have hypothyroidism. Thyroid disorders are often characterised by a red and puffy rash called myxedema.

Weight gain

One of the most typical symptoms of thyroid disease is an unexpected weight gain which is a disorder caused due to low thyroid hormone levels. If your thyroid produces more hormones than your body needs, you could lose weight suddenly. The medical word for this ailment is hyperthyroidism.

Puffy face

One of many hyperthyroidism symptoms is a swollen face and a bloated face.


Hoarseness is a common symptom frequently seen in hypothyroidism-affected people. 

Muscle weakness

Muscle weakness

Muscle weakness and soreness are common symptoms of thyroid disease, especially if your thyroid hormone levels aren’t where they should be.

Treatments of thyroid

Anti-thyroid drugs

Anti-thyroid drugs often known as anti-thyroid meds, are a typical treatment given for hyperthyroidism, especially if you have a chronic version of the condition caused by Graves’ disease or a goitre. Antithyroid medications stop the thyroid gland from making too much hormone.

Radioactive iodine

The thyroid gland absorbs radioactive iodine, which kills the cells in the gland. This has the effect of lowering the amount of thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland, as well as shrinking the gland’s size.

Thyroid cancer can be treated with radioactive iodine. The radioactive iodine (RAI) concentrates mostly in thyroid cells, where it can harm the thyroid gland and thyroid cells that take up iodine.


Increased beta-adrenergic tone causes hyperthyroidism symptoms, which can be alleviated with beta-blockers. Palpitations, tachycardia, tremulousness, anxiety, and heat intolerance are some of the symptoms.


The thyroid gland is surgically removed, either entirely or partially through a surgery called thyroidectomy. The thyroid gland secretes hormones that regulate every element of your metabolism, from heart rate to calorie burn rate.

How is thyroid disease diagnosed?

Blood tests

The thyroid function test checks how much thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (t4) are present in your blood. A high TSH level and a low T4 level in the blood could indicate that your thyroid is underactive.

Imaging tests

Nuclear medicine, ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are some of the imaging techniques that can be used to evaluate the thyroid gland. These techniques all provide information on the structure of the thyroid gland as well as the location and size of thyroid nodules. Nuclear medicine scans also provide functional data about nodules.

Physical exams

Physical examination is performed In either a seated or standing position. Examination of the thyroid is done between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch to detect the presence of the thyroid isthmus.

You can feel the fullness of the thyroid under the sternocleidomastoid by moving your hands laterally.

Risk Factors of thyroid

Insufficient dietary iodine

The thyroid enlarges when it strives to keep up with the demand for thyroid hormone production without enough iodine. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of thyroid enlargement and goitre all over the world.       

Personal history of thyroid disease

If you previously have side effects or diseases related to thyroid then you may have a higher chance of again getting affected by thyroid diseases. Taking care of oneself after the thyroid treatment is the best way to prevent oneself from thyroid complications in the future.

Family history of thyroid nodules

Thyroid nodules are more likely to occur if you have parents or siblings who have had thyroid nodules or other endocrine malignancies.

Thyroid nodules can be seen more frequently in women than in males, and they are more likely to develop as you age. It’s unclear why some people develop thyroid nodules and others don’t, although nodules seem to run in families.


Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid makes inadequate thyroid hormone and releases it into the bloodstream. Hypothyroidism causes fatigue, weight gain and chills at cold temperatures.

Prevention of thyroid

Quit smoking

Thyroid antibodies are connected with a low rate of smoking. Smoking cessation, on the other hand, raises thyroid antibody levels and may cause hypothyroidism.

Despite the notion that cigarette smoke contains compounds that can impair thyroid function, hypothyroidism was only discovered after smokers stopped smoking.

Selenium supplements

Selenium contributes to the anti-oxidant defence in the thyroid by eliminating oxygen free radicals created during the creation of thyroid hormones because it is incorporated into selenoproteins, which have an important antioxidant activity.

Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO) and the severity of hypothyroidism symptoms are both reduced when selenium is supplemented.

Visit your doctor regularly

If you have hypothyroidism, you should test your thyroid function once a year, and if you have hyperthyroidism, you should test it monthly. Regardless of whether you’ve been diagnosed or not, you can test yourself at home with our thyroid blood test kits at any time.

Doctors use thyroid tests to see how well your thyroid is functioning and to determine what’s causing thyroid problems such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.


The thyroid gland is a vertebrate endocrine gland which is generally known as the thyroid. It is located in the neck of humans and comprises two linked lobes. A small band of tissue termed the thyroid isthmus connects the lower two-thirds of the lobes.

The thyroid gland is placed below Adam’s apple in the front of the neck. Therefore, safeguard your body from thyroid-related diseases by following the appropriate guidelines and protocols of the doctor.


1. How does the thyroid affect the body?

The thyroid is in charge of metabolism, which is the mechanism of converting energy from food. Metabolism influences your body’s temperature, heartbeat and calorie count. Your biological functions reduce vastly if you don’t have enough thyroid hormone.

2. What are early warning signs of thyroid problems?

1. Fatigue
2. Weight gain
3. Weight loss
4. Slowed heart rate
5. Increased heart rate
6. Sensitivity to heat
7. Sensitivity to cold

3. What food is good for the thyroid?

1. Roasted seaweed
2. Fish and seafood
3. Dairy products, including yoghurt, milk, and cheese
4. Eggs
5. Nuts
6. Iodized salt

4. How to increase thyroid hormone naturally?

Thyroid hormone levels will improve as our cell receptors become more able to take up thyroid hormone.

5. what is the function of the thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is a vital hormone gland that affects the human body’s development, metabolism and growth. Thyroid hormone aids in the regulation of numerous body functions.

6. what does thyroid control?

The thyroid controls metabolism and helps to produce two vital hormones called T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (thyroxine) which tell the body’s cells how much energy to use.


The Information including but not limited to text, graphics, images and other material contained on this blog are intended for education and awareness only. No material on this blog is intended to be a substitute for professional medical help including diagnosis or treatment. It is always advisable to consult medical professional before relying on the content. Neither the Author nor Star Health and Allied Insurance Co. Ltd accepts any responsibility for any potential risk to any visitor/reader.

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