Various Types of Mood Disorders

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Mood Disorders  

Mood disorder is a mental health problem which largely impacts your emotional state. It’s a condition where you frequently feel extremely happy, extremely sad, or both. A few mood disorders also includes other enduring feelings like irritation and anger .

Your mood may fluctuate based on the circumstances, which is natural. However, symptoms must be present for a few weeks or more in order to be diagnosed as a mood illness. Mood disorders can alter your behaviour and make it challenging for you to carry out daily tasks like going to work or school. 

Symptoms of mood disorders

Mood problems can make it difficult to keep up with life’s obligations and daily responsibilities. Some individuals, particularly kids, may have physical signs of depression, such as unexplained headaches or stomachaches.

There are many distinct kinds of mood disorders, and each one can have a very different impact on quality of life. Generally speaking, signs might include 

  • Loss of interest in activities 
  • Crying 
  • Sleeping more than usual or difficulty sleeping   
  • Fatigue 
  • Problems in making decisions 
  • Thoughts of dying and suicide 
  • Feeling or having no energy to care 
  • Difficulty concentrating 
  • Feelings of guilt 
  • Feeling sad, worthless and isolated 
  • Eating more or less than usual 
  • Irritability 
  • Anxiety 

Various types of mood disorders

Mood disorders

Bipolar disorder  

Manic and depressive episodes alternate during episodes of bipolar disorder, commonly known as manic depression. The patient experiences tremendous happiness, an elevated mood, and high levels of energy during a manic episode. The patient exhibits extremely low moods and acts as if there is no chance for life during a depressive episode. 

Bipolar I disorder 

Manic depression, formerly known as bipolar I disorder, is a mental illness. Euphoric and/or irritated moods, as well as increased energy or activity, are characteristics of mania. People with bipolar I frequently engage in risky activities that could have detrimental effects on themselves or others while they are experiencing manic episodes. 

Bipolar II disorder 

In order to be diagnosed with bipolar II, a person must have experienced at least one episode of significant depression and at least one episode of hypomania (a less severe form of mania), but no previous manic episodes. 

Cyclothymic disorder 

The diagnosis requires at least a two-year history of several episodes that have features of profound depression and hypomania but do not truly match the criteria for either of these disorders. 

Bipolar and related disorder due to other medical condition

Bipolar disorder symptoms can potentially be brought on by some medical disorders. When there is proof that the mood disturbance is a physical, not mental, effect of another medical disease, this is diagnosed. 

Substance/medication-induced bipolar disorder  

This describes a person who has bipolar illness symptoms brought on by alcohol, drugs, or medicine. 

Other specified or unspecified bipolar 

When a person exhibits bipolar symptoms (such as a hypomanic episode lasting barely two days) but does not fit the criteria for any other type of bipolar disorder, these diagnoses may be used.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)  

Intense sadness, anger, or a sense of impending doom are the hallmarks of major depressive illness. Serious depression can make it difficult for a person to appreciate things that are often enjoyable. 

Being unhappy, having a bad day, or going through a brief moment of despair are not all that major depression is. Although major depressive disorder symptoms are typically present for months or even years, they are typically described as lasting at least two weeks. 

Depressive disorder due to another medical condition  

This diagnosis, which is similar to bipolar disorder associated with another medical condition, is given to individuals who exhibit depression-like symptoms, but the symptoms can be actually caused by an underlying medical condition, such as hypothyroidism. 

Substance/medication-induced depressive disorder  

A depressive condition brought on by drugs, alcohol, or prescription medicine is referred to as substance- or medication-induced depression. 

Other specified or unspecified depressive disorder  

These diagnoses may be used when a patient has a depressive disorder but doesn’t exactly fit the requirements for any other depressive disorder. They are known as other specified or unspecified depressive disorder. 

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) 

This kind of mood disorder starts seven to ten days before menstruation and disappears a few days after the menstrual period begins. This type of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is more severe. The menstrual cycle’s associated hormonal changes are thought to be the cause of this illness, according to researchers. Anger, irritation, anxiety, depression, and insomnia are some of symptoms. 

Disorder of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation (DMDD)

Children and teenagers are affected by DMDD. It entails a lot of angry outbursts and irritability that is excessive for the circumstance. When DMDD develops before the age of 10, it is more severe than intermittent explosive disorder (IED), and rage is typically present. 

Dysthymia 

Both chronic major depressive disorder, which has persisted for two years or longer, and dysthymic disorder or dysthymia, a milder form of depression, are included in this diagnosis. 

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) 

This sort of depression happens during particular seasons of the year. Usually lasting until spring or summer, it begins in the late autumn or early winter. Less frequently, SAD episodes can start in the summer or the late spring. Seasonal affective disorder throughout the winter may present with similar symptoms as serious depression. They typically decrease or disappear in the spring and summer. 

What causes mood disorders?  

According to researchers, a number of circumstances, such as the following, might cause mood disorders to develop: 

Biological factors 

The amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex are the parts of the brain that regulate your emotions and feelings. According to brain imaging studies, the amygdala is larger in those with mood disorders. 

Genetic factors 

It is clear that mood disorders are probably partially genetic/inherited because those who have a strong family history of a mood illness is more likely to experience one themselves. 

Environmental factors 

Chronic stress, traumatic events, stressful life upheavals including the death of a loved one, and childhood maltreatment are all significant risk factors for developing a mood disorder later in life, especially depression. Chronic diseases like diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and heart disease have also been related to depression. 

Treatment   

The unique disease and symptoms must be considered when treating mood disorders. Psychotherapy, often known as talk therapy, and medicine are typically used together for treatment. There are more treatment modalities, like brain stimulation therapy. 

Medications 

Medical professionals may recommend the following medicines to treat mood disorders: 

Antidepressants 

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are among one of the most often prescribed medications for the treatment of depression and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder. Inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRIs), which function similarly to SSRIs, are also frequently given. Even while studies indicate that several antidepressants are equally helpful, some antidepressants may be more potent depending on the individual.  

An antidepressant typically takes four to six weeks to start working. It’s essential to take the antidepressants as directed and to carry on doing so even after you start to feel better. 

Mood elevators 

These drugs aid in controlling mood swings brought on by bipolar disorder or other conditions. They lessen erratic brain activity. In some circumstances, doctors may recommend mood stabilisers in addition to antidepressants. Lithium and anticonvulsants are two of the most often prescribed mood stabilisers. 

Antipsychotics  

Mania or mixed episodes in people with bipolar disorder may be treated with an atypical antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication, such as aripiprazole. If symptoms of depression cannot be managed with an antidepressant alone, healthcare professionals will occasionally prescribe atypical antipsychotics. 

Therapy  

The term psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, refers to a number of therapeutic methods intended to assist a patient in recognising and altering unhelpful feelings, beliefs, and behaviours. 

A skilled, certified mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, conducts psychotherapy. It can help you perform better and improve your well-being by offering support, knowledge, and direction to you and/or your family. 

The following are some of the more prevalent forms of psychotherapy: 

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) 

This kind of treatment is regimented and goal-oriented. It is used by mental health experts to treat or manage emotional problems and mental health issues. 

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) 

A form of talk therapy called DBT is based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), but it has been modified especially for those who feel emotions very strongly. 

Psychodynamic therapy 

This method of therapy is predicated on the notion that childhood events and troubling, recurring thoughts or sentiments that are unconscious have an impact on behaviour and mental health. 

Some other therapies for mood disorders include: 

Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) 

A modest electric current is passed into your brain during electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), which results in a brief seizure. Bipolar illness and other severe, treatment-resistant mental health problems, such as depression, have been shown to benefit significantly from this surgery. ECT treatments may be administered outside of a hospital setting. Typically, two to three sessions each week over a minimum of two weeks are needed. Six to twelve sessions are often necessary. 

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 

For those with severe depression who have not found relief from at least one antidepressant drug, TMS is a therapy option. This kind of therapy uses brain stimulation. To assist in regulating your mood, TMS stimulates magnetic energy that transforms into an electrical current underneath your skull. 

Light therapy 

SAD is a condition that has long been treated using this method. It is based on the notion that during the autumn and winter, intense artificial light should be used in addition to natural sunlight. 

Summary  

Receiving a diagnosis of mood disorder of yours or your loved ones can be intimidating . But keep in mind that many tools are available to you, such as counselling, to help you cope. Consult a doctor who can diagnose you if necessary if you’re worried you might be exhibiting symptoms of a mood disorder. A doctor will be more able to assist you by developing a treatment plan the more openly you talk with them. 

FAQs

1. Can mood disorders be prevented?  

The prevalence of mood disorders cannot be prevented or decreased. Early detection and treatment, however, can lessen the severity of symptoms and promote a person’s regular growth and development. 

2. What are the five symptoms of a mood disorder?  

Symptoms of mood disorders include: 
Crying 
Difficulty concentrating 
Feelings of guilt 
Sleeping more than usual or difficulty in sleeping   
Fatigue 


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The Information including but not limited to text, graphics, images and other material contained on this blog are intended for education and awareness only. No material on this blog is intended to be a substitute for professional medical help including diagnosis or treatment. It is always advisable to consult medical professional before relying on the content. Neither the Author nor Star Health and Allied Insurance Co. Ltd accepts any responsibility for any potential risk to any visitor/reader.

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